主题：Emerging Market Presence and Firm Emissions 跨国公司的新兴市场的业务存在与其排放
Dr. Xu is currently a full professor in College of Business at University of Texas San Antonio and affiliated faculty member of Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Lean Systems, UTSA. Professor Xu got his Ph.D. in area of operations management (as well as a second major in logistics and transportation) from University of Maryland. He got his master and bachelor degrees from University of British Columbia and Shanghai Jiao-Tong University respectively. He major areas of expertise and research interests are: operations, logistics, and information management strategy; supply chain and business analytics; inventory and supply management; transportation policy, cost and demand studies.
Professor Xu’s project was award grant from National Science Foundation #1538418 ($179,997) for his project entitled “Integrated Circuit Supply Chain Security and Quality Control in Business and Social Context”. He has about 30 journal papers published in Production and Operations Management, Marketing Science, Decision Sciences Journal, European Journal of Operational Research, International Journal of Production Economics, International Journal of Production Research, etc. He is also on the Editorial Boards of (i) Journal of Operations Management (Associate Editor); (ii) Transportation Journal; (iii) Journal of Business Logistics; (iv) Journal of Supply Chain and Operations Management (JSCOM). He has provided review service for more than 20 journals including Production and Operations Management, Decision Sciences Journal, European Journal of Operational Research, Naval Research Logistics, OMEGA-International Journal of Management Science, etc.
Firms move to emerging markets to sell their products and to strategically off shore or outsource their production and supply chains. However, they may also take advantage of loose environment regulations and weak protection of existing laws in emerging market countries. Anecdotal evidence and media reports claim that increased firm activity in developing countries such as China, India, Brazil, etc. has resulted in greater environmental pollution. But statistical evidence is lacking in this area. This research consequently investigates the relationship between a firm’s presence in emerging markets and its emission levels. We conduct an empirical study using a panel dataset consisting of 300 global firms across various industries, along with their emission levels. Analysis of over 6 years of data from 2007-2012 shows even after factoring in the impact of institutional development of countries on emissions performance, firms that have a greater degree of emerging market penetration do indeed have higher emissions. We also find that adoption of an environmental supply management policy attenuates the relationship between emerging market penetration and emissions but counterintuitively, adoption of CSR amplifies this relationship. Implications of this study for a firm’s future operational and strategic location and offshoring decisions are also discussed and presented.
Keywords: Emerging market penetration, emissions, institutional development, manufacturing offshoring, outsourcing, sustainability.
公司通常利用两种方式来进入新兴市场来开展业务，一个是以销售自己产品，另一个是策略性的离岸外包生产或者供应链。公司这样做的目的，往往是利用新兴市场国家的宽松环境管理和薄弱的环保法律。很多媒体报道指出，公司活动的增加在中国、印度、巴西等发展中国家导致了更多的环境污染。但目前尚缺乏这方面的统计实证研究。我们此研究的目的就是调查跨国公司在新兴市场的运作与它们排放水平的关系。我们收集了各行各业近300家全球跨国公司的数据， 特别是他们的排放水平。 对这些公司六年多（2007-2012）的数据分析表明，即使排除了各国机构发展程度不一的影响，在新兴市场开展业务较多的跨国公司带来比较高的排放量。 我们的研究也发现该公司的环境供应链政策以及企业社会责任政策等都会影响该公司新兴市场业务运作与排放量的关系。 我们最后讨论这些研究结果对跨国公司的未来运营、战略选址、及离岸外包的决策等的影响和意义。